Scotoplanes globosa

Scotoplanes globosa (Théel, 1879)

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Comprehensive Description

Sea cucumbers are members of a group of marine animals known as echinoderms (“spiny skins”). The 7,000 species of echinoderms that live in today’s oceans also include the starfish, sea urchins, brittle stars, and sea lilies.  The 1,500 species of sea cucumbers, or holothurians, can be found in all oceans and at all depths, in a great variety of habitats – some burrow deep into mud or sand, while others may spend their entire lives swimming in midwater.  It is in the dark reaches of the deep sea where the sea cucumbers rule.  Here, a group known as the elasipods, of which Scotoplanes globosa is an example, can be found in enormous numbers (Dave Pawson, in litt. December 2009).

The bizarre deep-sea sea cucumbers were first described in wonderful detail by Swedish zoologist Hjalmar Théel in 1882, when he wrote a monograph of the astonishing collections amassed by the British research ship HMS Challenger in her round-the-world cruise of 1872-1876.  Théel described about 65 new species which he placed in a new Order, the Elasipoda.  The so-called elasipods are restricted to deep and cold parts of the world ocean, where they are the dominant large animals in most areas, often comprising more than 95% of the total weight of animals on the deep-sea floor.  They are of great importance in the general economy of the deep sea, for as they feed on sediments, and move along on the seafloor, they introduce oxygen into the sediments, thus making them habitable by myriad small animals (Dave Pawson, in litt. December 2009).

Elasipods can vary greatly in shape. Most are more or less cylindrical, but some are quite flat, resembling flatfish in general appearance.  They are often very fragile, for their bodies incorporate a large amount of water.  As a result, many elasipods may break into gelatinous fragments when they are collected in nets and dredges.  Several of these neutrally buoyant elasipods are capable of actively swimming for short to long periods of time.  Unique features can include the presence of several very large “walking legs”, which are greatly modified fluid-filled tube feet (tube feet are hydraulically operated locomotory organs possessed by all echinoderms).  The upper body surface may carry few to many whip-like so-called papillae, which are also modified tube feet.  It is believed that these papillae have a sensory function, helping the animal to “smell” its way to tasty sediments (Dave Pawson, in litt. December 2009).

Additional information and images can be found here:

Author(s): Shapiro, Leo
Rights holder(s): Shapiro, Leo



Like other elasipods, Scotoplanes can be found in very large herds, aggregations of often many thousands of individuals (Gutt and Piepenburg 1991).  These aggregations are not believed to be deliberate; rather, the animals tend to gather where food resources are abundant (Dave Pawson, in litt. December 2009).  Pawson (1976, 1982) and others have shown that elasipods usually face into the prevailing current, so they can “smell” more palatable sediments and move upstream to better feeding sites.  Thus, around carcasses of dead whales on the seafloor, thousands of Scotoplanes can be found, busily gulping down the sediments rich in organic matter derived from the decaying whales (Dave Pawson, in litt. December 2009).

Author(s): Shapiro, Leo
Rights holder(s): Shapiro, Leo


A typical Scotoplanes has a fat, oval body which may be around 4 inches (10 cm) in length, a mouth surrounded by ten feeding tentacles, five to seven pairs of walking “feet”, and three pairs of papillae on the upper surface of the body. Two of these pairs of papillae are long and whip-like, but the third pair is short and inconspicuous.  Usually, the intestine is filled with mud.  Photographs and digital images of these animals in situ show that they have a slight resemblance to feeding pigs, hence their common name "sea pig".

Author(s): Shapiro, Leo
Rights holder(s): Shapiro, Leo

Evolution and Systematics

Systematics and Taxonomy

Théel (1882) originally described seven species in his genus Scotoplanes.  In a recent monograph, Danish biologist Bent Hansen (1975) reduced the number of Scotoplanes species to two.  More recent research by Russian biologist Andrey Gebruk (1983) indicated at least five species of Scotoplanes.  Recent studies of these animals at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at La Jolla, California, indicate that there may be as many as eight species (Dave Pawson, in litt. December 2009).  Molecular analyses may soon help clarify the systematics (i.e., evolutionary relationships and species boundaries) of this group.

Author(s): Shapiro, Leo
Rights holder(s): Shapiro, Leo


  • Scotoplanes theeli Ohshima, 1915 (synonym)


Barnes, A. T., Quetin L. B., Childress J. J., & Pawson D. (1976).  Deep-sea macroplanktonic sea cucumbers: suspended sediment feeders captured from deep submergence vehicle. Science. 194, 1083-1085.
Gebruk, A. V. (1983).  Abyssal holothurians of the genus Scotoplanes (Elasipoda, Elpidiidae)[in Russian, English summary]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal . 62, 1359-1370.
Gutt, J., & Piepenburg D. (1991).  Dense aggregations of three deep-sea holothurians in the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 68, 277-285.
Hansen, B. (1975).  Systematics and biology of the deep-sea holothurians. Galathea Report: Scientific Results of the Danish Deep-Sea Expedition Round the World 1950-52. 1-262.
Pawson, D. L. (1976).  Some aspects of the biology of deep-sea echinoderms. Thalassia Jugoslavica. 12, 287-293.
Pawson, D. L. (1982).  Deep-sea echinoderms in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahama islands: A survey, using the research submersible Alvin. Australian Museum Memoirs. 16, 129-145.
Théel, H. (1882).  Report on the Holothurioidea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876, Part 1. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the Years 1873-1876, Zoology. 4, 1-176.