Phylogeny of the Bangiophycidae (Rhodophyta) and the secondary endosymbiotic origin of algal plastids

TitlePhylogeny of the Bangiophycidae (Rhodophyta) and the secondary endosymbiotic origin of algal plastids
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2000
AuthorsOliveira, M., & Bhattacharya D.
Refereed DesignationRefereed
JournalAmerican Journal of Botany

The Rhodophyta (red algae) are composed of the subclasses Bangiophycidae and Florideophycidae. Two evolutionarily interesting features of the Bangiophycidae are: (1) they are the ancestral pool from which the more morphologically complex taxa in the Florideophycidae have arisen and (2) they are the sources of the plastids, through secondary endosymbioses, for the Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and the Heterokonta. To understand Bangiophycidae phylogeny and to gain further insights into red algal secondary endosymbioses, we sequenced the plastid-encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) coding region from nine members of this subclass and from two members of the Florideophycidae. These sequences were included in phylogenetic analyses with all available red algal plus chlorophyll a + c algal plastid rDNA coding regions. Our results are consistent with a monophyletic origin of the Florideophycidae with these taxa forming a sister group of the Bangiales. The Bangiophycidae is of a paraphyletic origin with orders such as the Porphyridiales polyphyletic and distributed over three independent red algal lineages. The plastids of the heterokonts are most closely related to members of the Cyanidium–Galdieria group of Porphyridiales and are not directly related to cryptophyte and haptophyte plastids. The phylogenies provide strong evidence for the independent origins of these "complex" algal plastids from different members of the Bangiophycidae.